The purpose of marketing is to meet and meet the needs and desires of the target customer in the best way that competitors

In order for marketing to succeed, companies must have a complete connection with their customers, which means understanding and having a complete picture throughout their lives in order to provide them with the right products and services through the distribution channels Appropriate. It is then intended to know their tastes, preferences, needs and desires in order to generate satisfaction at the time of consumption and in this way have great profits in the company.

To make an accurate analysis, it should be taken into account that consumer behavior is responsible for evaluating how individuals, groups and organizations choose, buy, use and dispose of goods, services, ideas or experiences to satisfy their needs and desires.


Culture is perhaps the most influential and determining factor in the consumption of a person or a population. Beliefs, teachings, institutions, values, desires and needs mean that marketers need to take these variables into account in order to know how and in what way they are going to market their products, and how they can find new ones. Opportunities for the development of new products. Subculture and social classes are more specific indices that can provide more specific and detailed information on consumption habits in smaller populations, where people who share values, personal interests and similar behaviors are grouped together.

Social factors are also a point of reference in the consumption habits of people. Reference groups, family, roles and social status are determining factors. A person’s reference groups are all those that have a direct influence on an individual’s attitudes and behavior. These groups that generate a direct influence are known as belonging groups, some of them are primary in which the individual acts with daily life, and there are secondary groups which are more formal but where the individual does not have as much interaction.

The family is the most important consumer shopping organization in society and its members are the most influential group. The family of orientation is constituted by the people closest to the person and these are those who guide the individual to have certain habits, tastes and preferences. The procreation family is the most direct influence on buying behavior and consists of the couple and children of a person, who are the direct consumers of the family.

Roles and status are equally a determining factor in the consumption of an individual, since the groups and organizations to which the individual belongs help define the behavior of the individual. Individuals choose products that reflect their role and status, reflecting what they really want to show to the group they belong to.

Personal factors influence the way people are consumed, because they are determining factors in the life of an individual, for example in their tastes, needs or desires. The age and stage of the life cycle, occupation and economic circumstances, personality and personal concept the lifestyle and values.

The initial model to understand consumer behavior is the stimulus-response model. The stimuli of marketing and the environment enter the consumer, where it performs a series of psychological processes combined with certain characteristics of the individual to generate purchasing decision processes. Psychological processes with four:


A need becomes motivation when it is strong enough to lead a person to action. Motivation has both direction (The individual chooses one goal above another), intensity (The individual pursues the goal with more or less energy

2. Perception

Perception is the process by which the individual chooses, organizes, and interprets the information he receives to make himself a coherent picture of the world. It depends not only on physical stimuli, but also on their relation to the environment and internal conditioning. People develop different perceptions of the same object due to three perceptual processes: Selective attention, selective distortion and selective retention.

3. Learning

Learning induces behavioral changes from experience. Almost all of the individual’s behavior is learned. This is generated through the interrelation of impulses, stimuli, signals, responses and reinforcements. There are two types of approaches: classical conditioning and operant conditioning

  4. Memory

The individual possesses both short-term memory (temporary and limited information device) and long-term memory (it is a permanent and essentially unlimited device).


1.-Recognition of the problem

It is where the process begins as the buyer recognizes the presence of a problem or need as a result of a series of internal or external stimuli. An internal stimulus responds to the person’s normal needs (to satisfy hunger, thirst, or sexual desire). External stimuli respond to external impulses produced by other people which generate desires in the individual.

 2. Search for information

The buyer can have two types of intensity at the time of the search of the product. The milder search state is called intensified care, and the other is when the buyer initiates an active search for information about a product. There are different sources of information in which the consumer seeks.

Personal. Family, friends, neighbors, acquaintances

Commercial. Advertising, web pages, vendors, distributors, packaging.

Public. Media, consumer ratings organizations

From experience. Handling, examination and use of the product.

3. Evaluation of alternatives.

The consumer forms preferences among the brands that make up the whole of choice, and they could also formulate the purchase intention with respect to which they have the best perception. In the first place the consumer tries to satisfy a need; Secondly, it seeks a product to satisfy its needs and provide it with certain benefits; In the third, perceives each product as a set of attributes with diverse capabilities to offer those benefits

Beliefs are descriptive thoughts that an individual has regarding something, attitudes are evaluations, feelings, and enduring tendencies to action, favorable or unfavorable that the buyer has about some object or idea.

 4. Purchase decicion.

1. METHOD OF CONJUNCTIVE HEURISTICS: The consumer sets an acceptable minimum for each attribute and chooses the first alternative that meets this standard for all attributes.

2. LEXICOGRAPHIC HEURISTICS: The consumer chooses the best brand based on the attribute he perceives as the most important.

3. ELIMINATION DETERMINATION BY ASPECTS: The consumer compares the marks according to the selected attribute in a probabilistic way, and eliminates the marks that do not meet a minimum acceptable level.

Other factors that intervene at the time of the purchase decision may be the attitudes of other people, and unforeseen situational factors.

There are also certain types of perceived risks.

Functional risk. The product does not pack as expected

Physical risk. The product poses a threat to the physical well-being or health of the user or other persons

Financial risk. The product is not worth the price paid

Social risk. The product causes embarrassment in front of others

Psychological risk. The product affects the mental well-being of the user

Risk of opportunity. The failure of the product results in an opportunity cost to the need to find another satisfactory product.

5. Behavior post buy.

After the purchase the customer will be aware of the performance of the article or service and will be attentive to hear different opinions about positive or negative comments from other brands. You will be alert to information that ratifies your purchase decision, so marketing communications should provide you with beliefs and evaluations that reinforce your decision and help you feel good about the brand.


If the result is short it falls short of the expectations the customer will be dissatisfied, on the contrary if the result exceeds their expectations the customer will be satisfied, it is up to the customer to buy brand new products and publish favorable information about She or on the contrary make unfavorable criticisms with other people about the brand.

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